Physical Properties of Solid Fuel Briquettes from Waste Indian Cork Leaves

  • Titiporn Chorchong Pibulsongkram Rajabhat University
  • Kasama Durongsak Pibulsongkram Rajabhat University
  • Pisit Poolprasert Kasetsart University
Keywords: physical properties, solid fuel, Indian cork leaves, waste materials


This study aimed to investigate the physical properties of solid fuel briquettes made from waste Indian cork leaves. Various mass ratios of Indian cork leaves and starch paste (80:20, 70:30, 60:40, and 50:50) were cold compressed and evaluated according to American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards for fuel qualities. The parameters assessed included heat value, moisture content, ash content, volatile compound content, fixed carbon content, and organic constituents (carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen) using an organic elemental analyzer. Results indicated that all four ratios of solid fuels met waste characteristics requirements and could yield fuel rods with calorific values exceeding 3,000 calories per gram. The 80:20 ratio produced the most favorable fuel characteristics, with a calorific value of 4,596.67±9.86 calories per gram, moisture content of 0.73±0.19 %, ash content of 5.73±0.13 %, volatile matter content of 77.95±3.32 %, stable carbon content of 15.59 %, carbon element of 52.06 %, hydrogen element of 6.37 %, and nitrogen element of 2.28 %. Consequently, it can be concluded that Indian cork leaves possess favorable fuel properties and higher calorific values compared to other waste biomass types such as pineapple peels, coconut pulp, mangosteen, durian, ginger rhizomes, rice husks, and cassava rhizomes, making them suitable substitutes for household firewood.